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Polska będzie wielkim zwycięzcą i znacznie rozszerzy zasięg swoje­go panowania, chociaż poniesie największe straty spośród wszystkich uczestników konfliktu


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Part III. Didactic aspects of education of tomorrow
Urszula Ordon

/dr hab.; Uniwersytet im. Jana Długosza in Częstochowa/

Teacher in the face of educational tasks at pre school and school

Nauczyciel wobec zadań edukacyjnych przedszkola i szkoły
Educational reality in Poland has been subject to significant changes and mod­ernization for many years, which resulted in considerable modification in the im­age of Polish school. Extensive reforms were introduced in various fields and at many educational levels; the changes included also pre-school and early-school education. Implementation of these reforms referred to program, organization and methodology. It is important that new curricula were defined for pre-schools and primary schools (including grades I-III). There was a social debate regarding education of six-year old children, in particular appropriate forms of its organi­zation and age of compulsory education. The degree of preparation of schools to perform their tasks in a proper way is still discussed and analyzed. Many changes involves implementation of legal standards within the scope of teachers profes­sional preparation (introduction of national framework that specifies require­ment within the scope of various fields of professional preparation).The changes that have been implemented generates new tasks for teachers, educational authorities and principals. As suggested by E. Skoczylas-Krotla and I. Sochacka they should be also discussed by people who are responsible for education system: officials, Members of Parliament, reformers, teachers and lec­turers. Their consolidated actions should "support improvements in education system and take into consideration current educational factors and expectations of pre-school and school."

Keywords: pre-school education, early-school education, educational tasks and duties, change, teacher, professional competences

Abstract: There were discussion and research in Poland regarding determining age which is optimal for children to start education. The topic of proper age divided societies of: teachers, parents, psychologists and education authorities. They still attempt to raise "only right argu­ments" for or against earlier compulsory education. Lowering of school age to 6 years is still the subject of much controversy. Despite many protests, government did not withdraw from the reform. In September 2014, all seven year old children and six year old children born before the end of June2008 were comprised by compulsory education. Parents of six-year-olds born in the second half of this year can choose if their child go to kindergarten or to school. In 2015, all six year old children will have to go to school. Polish Ministry of National Education has already started process of implementing the reform. But the changes they are attempting to introduce, are not accepted without criticism.

Słowa kluczowe: edukacja przedszkolna, edukacja wczesnoszkolna, zadania i powinności edukacyjne, zmiana, nauczyciel, kompetencje zawodowe.

Streszczenie: W Polsce prowadzono dyskusje i badania naukowe nad ustaleniem optymalne­go wieku do rozpoczęcia nauki przez dzieci. Temat granicy wieku podzielił społeczność nauczy­cieli, rodziców, psychologów i władze oświatowe. Nieustannie dokonuje się próba wysuwania „jedynie słusznych argumentów" za bądź przeciw przyśpieszeniu obowiązku szkolnego. Ob­niżenie wieku szkolnego od sześciu lat wzbudza wiele kontrowersji. Mimo protestów rząd nie wycofał się z reformy. We wrześniu 2014 r. do szkoły obowiązkowo pójdą dzieci siedmioletnie oraz sześciolatki urodzone do końca czerwca 2008 r. Rodzice sześciolatków urodzonych w dru­giej połowie roku będą mieli możliwość wyboru, czy ich dziecko pójdzie do przedszkola czy do szkoły podstawowej. W 2015 r. do szkoły pójdą już wszystkie sześciolatki. Polskie Ministerstwo Edukacji Narodowej rozpoczęło już proces wdrażania reformy. Zmiany, jakie stara się wprowa­dzić, nie są przyjmowane bez krytyki.
Aleksandra Kamińska

/ dr; Wyższa Szkoła Humanitas in Sosnowiec/.
The ways of obtain information from the internet sources by the young people

Sposoby pozyskiwania informacji przez młodzież ze źródeł internetowych

Internet always constituted the challenge for education. The analysis of the pedagogic literature from the period of the slow development of internet in Po­land indicates great hopes with it (besides the great anxieties to). Internet was perceived, like earlier the television, as the window on the world. It has facili­tates access to the innumerable amount of information (in this of the valuable information, which was difficulty available and expensive earlier) in any place and time, aside from geographical sources of their location. The education did not use these positive sides of the new medium, due to his price and the lack of the generality partly, but also from regard fear of teachers before this technol­ogy and accompanying it the inability of the creative use of its resources dur­ing didactic occupations, which existing today. Today internet is a general and relatively cheap technology. We bring up generation, so called e-generation, i.e. the children who grow together with the internet and use this technology since they remember. Nonetheless the educational system still does not manage with its possibilities. At the same time new problems arise, which don't facilitate the teachers of the valuable use from its sources. The education seems overlook, that we live in the environment of the bursty traffic in which close to the information of highly valuable, on the same rights function the information distorted, false, whether simply outdated. "In effect, at the turn XX and XXI century arose a very specific situation in which the quantity of created, gathered and available infor­mation is not correlated with research methods and possibilities of the informa­tion absorption by the brain of man."
Keywords: information literacy, digital children, skill, educational processe

Abstract: In this chapter the authoress tries to create the base of basic skills to access informa­tion in the internet in a learning aims. The base of this analyze is life of modern man in infor­mation society. In this basic skills authoress figures out: intentional search of information, in-troducement with tools necessity to research adequate information, selection of information, evaluation reliability of them and rules of use of information, as well as creation of new one.

Słowa kluczowe: alfabetyzacja informacyjna, cyfrowe dzieci, umiejętności, proces edukacji

Streszczenie: W niniejszym rozdziale autorka, na bazie warunków związanych z funkcjono­waniem współczesnego człowieka w warunkach hiperpodaży informacji w społeczeństwie informacyjnym, tworzy katalog podstawowych umiejętności niezbędnych uczniowi w poszu­kiwaniu informacji w internecie do celów uczenia się. Wśród podstawowych umiejętności wy­mieniono i zanalizowano: celowe poszukiwanie informacji, znajomość środków potrzebnych do wyszukania odpowiednich informacji, selekcję informacji, ocenę ich wiarygodności oraz zasady wykorzystania informacji i twórczego tworzenia nowych.
Mariusz Przybyła

/dr; Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza in Poznań/

Sylwia Polcyn

/mgr; Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza in Poznań/
Educational contexts of contemporary computer games

O kontekstach edukacyjnych współczesnych gier komputerowych
Playing computer games, listening to music on mobile devices, "chatting," "lik­ing," "gathering" friends on social networking sites, sending MMSs and e-mail has become an integral part of young people s lives. It is not the point in finding a new way to condemn this lifestyle. M. Prensky in his article "Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants" indicates, inter alia, that present - day young generation - the youth born in 1980 (in relation to so-called Eastern bloc and to Poland we should take into account the youth born after 1989) can be called "Digital Natives." These are the people who, before they began higher education, spent on average less than five thousand hours reading a book. At the same time, however, these Digital Natives played computer games about 10 thousand hours on average.In early 60s the rapid development of forms of entertainment began. That times brought heyday to the computer games. Nobody had the idea that the de­velopment of games would cause a huge revolution in many aspects of human lives. Along with their evolution and transmutation, which undoubtedly influ­enced the development of computer technology, the whole range of different types of games began to develop. The turn of the century not only did not disap­point his contemporaries but also went beyond their wildest dreams. In many cases it went beyond the capabilities of perception and consumption of what had changed. The rules of functioning in the real world had transformed, the world had become more virtual than the world shown in Doom or Quake. The world is saturated with constant changes of changes.

Despite the multiplicity, as well as the diversity of content they present, com­puter games are most often associated with violence, brutality, killing, generally showing acts of cruelty, nudity and Satanism. Therefore, in relation to computer

Keywords: computer games, educational games, digital natives

Abstract: Biased and unfair to assign computer games only features colored pejorative slowly thing of the past. Increasingly, you can find in them many of the contexts of education and the opportunity to develop specific skills, to promote traditional forms of school and extracur­ricular activities, or compensate for deficiencies. These features have a constructive impact on the youngest so and quite adult recipients of software which, although can be divided into a number of species and subspecies, called computer games. Rational use of the phenomenon of (educational) gaming - combining fun with the teaching - learning process in assisting can become an attractive alternative to traditional methods of teaching, and above all can meet with great interest among students instilling in them the motivation and desire to deepen their knowledge. Multi-sensual and convergent games can be a valuable argument to use them both for students and for teachers. Computer games can also serve as a means of optimizing the learning process and affecting the growth of its effectiveness.

Słowa kluczowe: gry komputerowe, gry edukacyjne, cyfrowi tubylcy

Streszczenie: Tendencyjne i niesprawiedliwe przypisywanie grom komputerowym jedynie cech o zabarwieniu pejoratywnym powoli odchodzi do lamusa. Coraz częściej można w nich odnaleźć wiele kontekstów edukacyjnych i możliwość rozwoju określonych umiejętności, wspierania tradycyjnych form szkolnych i pozaszkolnych, czy też kompensowania braków. Cechy te mają konstruktywny wpływ tak na najmłodszych, jak i całkiem dorosłych odbiorców oprogramowania, które (choć można podzielić na szereg gatunków i podgatunków) nazywa­my grami komputerowymi. Racjonalne wykorzystanie fenomenu (edukacyjnych) gier kompu­terowych - łączących zabawę z nauczaniem - przy wspomaganiu procesu kształcenia może stać się atrakcyjną alternatywą dla tradycyjnych metod nauczania, a przede wszystkim może spotkać się z ogromnym zainteresowaniem wśród uczniów, wzbudzając w nich motywację i chęć do pogłębiania wiedzy. Polisensoryczność i konwergentność gier mogą stanowić cen­ny argument do ich wykorzystywania tak dla uczniów, jak i dla nauczycieli. Gry komputerowe mogą także pełnić rolę środka optymalizującego proces kształcenia i wpływającego na wzrost jego efektywności.
Dorota Ciechanowska

/dr; Wyższa Szkoła Humanistyczna Towarzystwa Wiedzy Powszechnej in Szczecin./
Student responsibility in deep learning

Odpowiedzialność studentów w uczeniu się głębokim
In recent years, there has been a debate on the condition of academic training, focusing on its servitude to the needs of civilization and its opposition to the idea of the Humboltean university. The ideals pursued by both streams are inflected in various ways, despite the different perceptions of the academic tasks. Much less at­tention is given to the students, and in particular to their development, which takes place in the realm of personality development, as well as in the sphere of intellec­tual growth, increasing knowledge and gaining competence. "Of all the internal functions of higher, education, educational functions are the least recognized and least embedded in the consciousness of professional teachers. Even if these features are identified and accepted the otherness of education at this level is rarely under­stood in relation to the educational activity at lower levels of education. Hence many assertions about the uselessness of such influence justified by the legal adult­hood of the students, their reaching full sense of personal growth, a strong sense of autonomy, etc." Supporting students in their development seems to be marginal­ized in recent years

Discourse is held from the perspective of the development of societies, the interests of national economies and technological development. It sees universities as a place to build economic capital. The intellectual capital of a nation as a value has become important only in the perspective of its usefulness and measurable financial and economic accountability.

The modern university, in the field of assisting in students' development" sets itself the task of updating and adding dynamic to the individual development of students.
Keywords: students' responsibility, deep learning, higher education

Abstract: Universities are faced with the necessity of redefining their educational goals in relation to the newly-defined tasks posed to the academic education. The outcomes of uni­versity education defined in the language of competence will not be achieved, unless the uni­versity ceases to continue the transmission strategies of teaching. Activation of students in the process of education means a shift in emphasis from teaching to make students responsible for their learning process. Autonomy in learning leads one to self-directedness and deep learning, which involves critical analysis of new information and combining it with the existing memory concepts, building the personal knowledge of the student.

Słowa kluczowe: odpowiedzialność studentów, uczenie się głębokie, edukacja akademicka

Streszczenie: Uczelnie wyższe stają wobec konieczności redefinicji swoich celów kształcenia w związku z nowo definiowanymi zadaniami stawianymi kształceniu akademickiemu. Efek­ty kształcenia akademickiego definiowane w języku kompetencji nie zostaną osiągnięte, jeśli uniwersytet nie zaprzestanie kontynuowania transmisyjnej strategii kształcenia. Aktywizacja studentów w procesie kształcenia oraz przesunięcie akcentów z nauczania na uczynienie stu­dentów odpowiedzialnymi za swój proces kształcenia. Autonomia w uczeniu się prowadzi do nakierowania na własny rozwój oraz głębokiego uczenia się, które polega na krytycznej anali­zie nowych wiadomości oraz łączeniu ich z istniejącymi już w pamięci konceptami, prowadząc do budowania wiedzy osobistej studenta.
Wojciech Wiesner

/dr hab.; Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego in Wrocław/

Bogusław Ogrodnik

/mgr ; Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego in Wrocław/
Role of models in swimming education

Wzorce osobowe w edukacji pływackiej
The educational process leads the man to be more rather than to have more. The role model plays here a significant role which one can relate to. Not only is it a moral authority for the pupil, but also a virtue advocate. Swimming education is characterized by the fact that it is carried out in an environment specific to this form of activity. Swimming education and its disciplines, such as water safety ed­ucation, water sports education, water rescue education, are the effect of the con­scious effort at ones character shaping. In the personal philosophy of education, as it is human oriented, it is a person that is the aim of the education.

Distinct from the idols created by media, in education the universal values are the ones that contribute to the authenticity of the authority. The develop­ment of an authority in education requires from the pupils the willingness to accept and conform to the values presented to them.
Keywords: swimming education, role models, axiology

Abstract: Development of an authority in education is a complex process, because it re­quires from the pupils the willingness to accept and conform to the values presented to them. A role model, that one can relate to, plays a significant role in this procedure. In swimming education heroes that are created should be mentally and emotionally allied to the young generation of future professional swimmers. They should be sought among superior swim­mers, not only in Poland, but also in the history of the world swimming. Thereby considera­tions present few selected swimming stars. Can the cited swimmers serve as role models for the contemporary water activity enthusiasts? During the struggle with water and their own weakness they have revealed great body and spirit qualities that are present only in the su­perior athletes. Due to the personality traits they constitute a model that one can relate their own actions to. The objective of these deliberations is an attempt to explain the ethical sense of the record-breaking swimming achievements.

Słowa kluczowe: edukacja pływacka, wzorce osobowe, aksjologia

Streszczenie: Powstanie autorytetu w edukacji jest procesem złożonym, gdyż wymaga go­towości wychowanków do zaakceptowania reprezentowanych wartości i podporządkowania się im. Istotną rolę odgrywa tu wzorzec osobowy, do którego można się odnieść. W edukacji pływackiej należy kreować bohaterów bliskich mentalności i emocjom młodego pokolenia adeptów pływania. Należy ich poszukiwać wśród wybitnych pływaków zarówno w Polsce, jak i w historii światowego pływania. W niniejszym opracowaniu przedstawiono sylwetki kilku wybranych gwiazd pływackich. Czy przywołane postacie pływaków mogą stanowić wzorce osobowe dla współczesnych pasjonatów aktywności ruchowej w wodzie? Podczas zmagań z wodą i własnymi słabościami wykazali oni wielkie przymioty ciała i ducha, występujące jedy­nie u największych sportowców. Dzięki tym cechom osobowości stanowią pewien wzorzec, do którego można odnosić własne działania. Celem rozważań jest próba wyjaśnienia etycznego sensu rekordowych osiągnięć pływackich.


Part IV

Healthy preventive in education of tomorrow
Mariola Wojciechowska

/dr hab.; Uniwersytet (Jana Kochanowskiego in Kielce/

Monika Szpringer

/dr hab.; Uniwersytet (Jana Kochanowskiego in Kielce/

Justyna Kosecka

/mgr; Uniwersytet Jana Kochanowskiego in Kielce/


Health and physical activity awareness of young people - selected aspects

Zdrowie i aktywność fizyczna w świadomości młodzieży - wybrane problemy

Physical activity belongs to one of basic and positive measures of the populations state of health. It is also one of many forms of behavior practiced everyday by groups as well as individuals - children, teenagers, adults and the elderly. Over the years, the humankind has observed the connection between fitness and physical activity.

According to guidelines of the American Cancer Society, children and teenagers should practice exercise of moderate or high intensity for 5 days a week or more for at least 60 minutes a day. Such exercise should be recommended for children and teenagers in order to maintain proper body weight and correct fitness British spe­cialists have prepared a recommendation for individuals aged 15-18. They consider moderate everyday exercise lasting 1 hour a desirable physical activity. According to the above-mentioned researchers, moderate physical effort lasting for at least half an hour a day is a minimum physical activity.Only approximately 30% of children and teenagers, as well as 10% of adults is physically active in such a manner that intensity and type of loads meet the ba­sic, physiological body requirements. It is assumed that, from the health-oriented point of view, the beneficial level of physical activity concern/s 70% of children
Keywords: young people, physical activity, health, values

Abstract: Appreciation of health and physical activity conditions to a large extent the behavior of young and adult people. Developing desired behavior (maintaining physical form, increas­ing physical and mental strength) is quite a complex process, determined by many factors. The aim of the study was to specify the values of physical activity of young people in relation to social and demographic conditions. The chapter comprises an overview of studies on appre­ciation of health and physical activity by young people. It provides foundations for establish­ing broader education in scope of physical activity in people's lives, developing young people's knowledge on healthy lifestyle and promoting the value of health. One may also predict the use of mass media for the promotion of physical activity, sport and active rest to strengthen organism, immune against Illnesses and make life more rewarding and satisfying.

Słowa kluczowe: młodzież, aktywność fizyczna, zdrowie, wartości

Streszczenie: Cenienie wartości zdrowia oraz aktywności fizycznej w dużej mierze wyznacza działanie człowieka w wieku młodzieńczym i dorosłym. Kształtowanie się pożądanych zacho­wań (dbałość o kondycję fizyczną, pomnażanie sił fizycznych i psychicznych) jest procesem dość złożonym, uwarunkowanym wieloma czynnikami. Celem badań było określenie uznania wartości aktywności fizycznej młodzieży szkolnej w związku ze społeczno-demograficznymi uwarunkowaniami. Tekst rozdziału zawiera przegląd badań i stanowisk nad uznaniem zdro­wia i aktywności fizycznej przez młodzież. Daje to podstawę do konstruowania możliwości szerszej edukacji z zakresu znaczenia aktywności fizycznej w życiu człowieka, rozwijanie wie­dzy młodzieży na temat zdrowego stylu życia oraz propagowanie wartości zdrowia. Można także przewidywać wykorzystanie mass mediów do propagowania aktywności ruchowej, sportu, aktywnego wypoczynku w celu wzmacniania organizmu, zabezpieczania przed cho­robami i czynienia życia bardziej satysfakcjonującym.
Piotr Olesniewicz

/dr hab.; Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego in Wrocław/.

Mariusz Sołtysik

/dr; Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego in Wrocław./

Legal, organizational, and economic aspects of school tourism in Poland. Current trends and solutions

Organizacyjno-prawne i ekonomiczne aspekty turystyki szkolnej w Polsce. Aktualne tendencje i rozwiązania

In the current classifications of tourist activities, presented in relation to various criteria, school tourism is referred to as a formal and structural form. It is most often related to a membership, the environmental profile of its participants, and the character of the organized tourist undertakings. Undoubtedly, such an approach determines its secondary and complementary significance, as compared with the differentiated basic types of tourism.

When treated as a form or a category of tourist activities, school tourism can be considered within the system of three basic types of tourism: leisure, sightseeing and qualified tourism. There is no doubt that it fulfils other functions as well -recreational, sightseeing and specialist. In this respect, it may include activities whose dominant theme of migration is: recreation - including getaway events, the so called green schools and white schools,

  • ecologic school trips, and stationary summer camps;

  • sightseeing (exploring) - including theme tours, sightseeing and tourist excur­sions, and other sightseeing and tourist events;

  • physical activity and exercise - including qualified tourism events and hiking trips.


Keywords: school tourism, children and youth tourism, public entities, non-governmental organizations, tourist projects, organizing and financing

Abstract: The chapter presents practical issues and the related selected reflections with regard to the functioning of school tourism in Poland, mainly at the public and social level. It focuses in particular on the most important organizational, legal, and financial aspects of the children and youth tourism, which constitute the basis for implementing any tourist projects within a generally understood education system in Poland. Reflections on the school tourism include those on the current state of the type of tourism, its selected considerations, practical solutions, and directions of development. An analysis of chosen organizational, legal, and financial as­pects of school tourism implies a general conclusion that the school tourism currently meets, and perhaps will also meet in the future, an important pro-social and pro-economic function for the development of local and regional environment. The basic condition is to maintain its organization and financing at least at the current level and to reach out for cross-sectorial co­operation solutions in this respect
Słowa kluczowe: turystyka szkolna, turystyka dzieci i młodzieży, jednostki publiczne, organi­zacje pozarządowe, przedsięwzięcia turystyczne, organizacja i finansowanie

Streszczenie: W rozdziale przedstawiono zagadnienia praktyczne i związane z nimi wybra­ne.refleksje w odniesieniu do funkcjonowania turystyki szkolnej w Polsce, w tym głównie na szczeblu publiczno-społecznym. Treści opracowania koncentrują się w szczególności na naj­ważniejszych aspektach organizacyjno-prawnych i finansowych turystyki dzieci i młodzieży, będących podstawą realizacji wszelkich przedsięwzięć turystycznych ogólnie rozumianego systemu oświaty w Polsce. W rozważaniach nad turystyką szkolną odniesiono się m.in. do za­gadnień bieżącego stanu tego rodzaju ruchu turystycznego, jego wybranych uwarunkowań i praktycznych rozwiązań oraz kierunków rozwoju. Analiza niektórych aspektów organizacyj­no-prawnych i finansowych turystyki szkolnej pozwala na określenie ogólnej, przekrojowej konkluzji, iż pełni ona obecnie (i może także w przyszłości pełnić) istotną funkcję prospołeczną i progospodarczą w rozwoju środowiska lokalnego i regionalnego. Podstawowym warunkiem jest utrzymanie jej organizacji i finansowania na przynajmniej dotychczasowym poziomie oraz sięganie w tym zakresie po rozwiązania do praktyki współpracy międzysektorowej.
Jana Jurikova

/dr Uniwersytet Masaryka in Brno/

Robin Havelka

/Uniwersytet in Brno/

Nutrition education and eating habits of pregnant women who attend antenatal clinics in Brno (Czech Republic)

Zachowania żywieniowe kobiet w ciąży - pacjentek poradni dla kobiet w ciąży w Brnie (Republika Czeska)
Pregnancy is one of the most important periods in a woman's life. It is a condi­tion lasting for approx. 40 weeks (9 calendar months, which is 10 lunar months). Suddenly, the woman does not take care only about herself but she must bear in mind the needs of her unborn baby as well. The mother's body is changing during the whole period adapting to the developing fetus which is still more demanding. Pregnancy brings about not only beautiful moments such as first moves of the fetus but also less comfortable situations like morning nausea or heartburn. Still, pregnancy is a Nature's miracle which each woman should treasure.

In today's hectic world, many women do not realize the importance to perform some physical activity during pregnancy. Not only does it make pregnancy easier but good physical condition of a pregnant woman is a suitable predisposition for a successful delivery, no matter how difficult it may turn out to be. Important is also right nutrition and keeping correct nutrition habits not only during preg­nancy but also before becoming pregnant. Fortunately, nowadays there is only a small percentage of women who think that they can eat anything they want during pregnancy or that the mother-to-be has to eat the amount for two. Preg­nant women should be well educated due to a relatively large number of books and education and fitness courses for pregnant women.
Keywords: pregnant women, nutrition, informations, education, breakfasts, fruits, vegeta­bles, consumption

Abstract: Nowadays, Czech Republic has a developed system of health care which include both antenatal clinics to take care of pregnant women and subsequently of the mother and the child. The health condition of pregnant women is observed in antenatal clinics where the women should be advised on correct nutrition during pregnancy and on suitable physical ac­tivities. Further, there are courses and seminars for pregnant women; information can also be obtained from books and last but not least the internet. This paper attempts to find the answer to the question whether pregnant women today are sufficiently educated in respect of correct nutrition during pregnancy, whether they have good access to information on this topic, where they most frequently get the information from a whether they put them in practice. The re­search carried out in 50 women attending an antenatal clinic in Brno-Kohoutovice revealed that the pregnant women who attend the clinic are relatively well-informed regarding this topic. Mostly, they get the information from magazines, books, newspaper and promotional brochures. Some women stated that they got the information form the antenatal clinic; how­ever they did not state courses for pregnant women as a source of information. A very positive fact is that the majority of the researched pregnant women put the obtained information into practice in their lives.
Słowa kluczowe: kobiety w ciąży, żywienie, informacje, edukacja, śniadania, owoce, warzywa, konsumpcja

Streszczenie: W przedstawionym rozdziale przeprowadzono badania wśród kobiet ciężarnych dotyczące ich stanu wiedzy na temat żywienia. Badaniami objęto 50 kobiet odwiedza­jących poradnię dla kobiet w ciąży w Brnie. Do zebrania danych posłużyły kwestionariusze ankietowe. Z przeprowadzonych badań wynika, że kobiety ciężarne są dobrze wyedukowani w zakresie zasad prawidłowego żywienia w ciąży. Źródłem informacji były w większości czasopisma, książki, gazety i broszury informacyjne. Stwierdzono, że zdobytymi informacjami ankietowane kobiety kierują się w codziennym życiu.
Monika Szpringer

/dr hab.; Uniwersytet Jana Kochanowskiego in Kielce/...

Mariola Wojciechowska

/ dr hab. Uniwersytet Jana Kochanowskiego in Kielce/

Justyna Kosecka

/mgr; Uniwersytet Jana Kochanowskiego in Kielce/

Ewa Barańska

/Uniwersytet Jana Kochanowskiego in Kielce/
Knowledge of eating disorders related to bulimia among secondary school learners in Poland

Znajomość zaburzeń odżywiania związanych z bulimią wśród młodzieży szkół średnich w Polsce
Eating disorders comprise a group of aetiologically-complex health problems, in which medical conditions, though important, are only one of a few other elements, including also psychosocial, cultural, personality-related, material and economical factors. Although eating disorders are usually associated with anorexia or bulimia, the classification of nourishment-related issues is far broader.

At the beginning of the 21st century, eating disorders among children and adolescents constitute a serious social and health problem. During the last few years, there has been a systematic growth of pathological phenomena connected with malnutrition which lead to anorexia nervosa, bulimia, undernourishment or obesity. Insufficient or no demand for necessary nutrient elements is particu­larly adverse during the adolescence period, as it may lead to disorders of central
Keywords: eating disorders, young people, bulimia nervosa

Abstract: It is possible to observe recently an increasing phenomenon of eating disorders among children and youth. A systematic growth of pathologic malnourishment-related symp­toms leads not only to health problems but also to social ones among young people. The re­search included 210 students (120 girls and 80 boys) within 13-18 age bracket. A diagnostic survey method was employed in the study, along with a questionnaire technique. The research tool was author's questionnaire form. The Body Mass Index (BMI) was used to calculate proper body weight. The collected data was subject to a statistical analysis with a StatsDirect software (14-day version). The obtained results reveal that young people's knowledge about eating dis­orders is unsatisfactory. For that reason, it is necessary to undertake measures in scope of eat­ing disorders prevention among the youth.

Słowa kluczowe: zaburzenia odżywiania, młodzież, bulimia

Streszczenie: W ostatnich latach obserwuje się co raz częstsze występowanie zjawiska zabu­rzeń żywienia wśród dzieci i młodzieży. Systematyczny wzrost patologicznych zjawisk zwią­zanych z nieprawidłowym żywieniem prowadzi do występowania wśród młodych ludzi nie tylko problemów zdrowotnych, ale także tych związanych naturą społecznq. W badaniu wzię­ło udział 210 uczniów w tym 120 dziewczqt oraz 90 chłopców (przedział wiekowy 13-18 lat). W badaniu zastosowano metodę sondażu diagnostycznego, w ramach którego wykorzystano technikę ankietowania. Narzędziem badawczym był autorski kwestionariusz ankiety. Do ob­liczenia prawidłowości wagi ciała wykorzystano wskaźnik BMI (Body Mass Indeks). Zebrany materiał badawczy poddano analizie statystycznej za pomocą programu StatsDirect (wersja 14-dniowa). Uzyskane wyniki wykazały, że wiedza młodzieży w zakresie zaburzeń odżywania jest niezadowalająca. W związku z tym konieczne jest podejmowanie działań z zakresu pre­wencji zaburzeń żywienia wśród młodych ludzi.
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