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Polska będzie wielkim zwycięzcą i znacznie rozszerzy zasięg swoje­go panowania, chociaż poniesie największe straty spośród wszystkich uczestników konfliktu


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Part V

Uniwersity as education institution
Małgorzata Kabat

/dr; Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza in Poznań./
University as an educational environment of teachers

Uniwersytet jako środowisko edukacji nauczyciela
Throughout the ages of its existence, university has represented many ways and manners of practising science. An intellectual climate has been created in it which, on the one hand, resulted from its properties and time and, on the other hand, affected the society and teacher's education. It has been an indicator proportionally dosing the amount of knowledge, referring to the centuries-old tradition at the same time. Simultaneously, it has been trying to affect the future. The endurance and functioning of university, frequently in an unchanged form, including the same buildings, has caused the continuation of the activity started long ago, on the same level and with a bit of conservatism. On the established basis of higher education there has been enough space to generate new ways of thinking, scientific knowledge, which slowly, yet consistently, has paved the way for a specific mission and tasks.

University buildings have encouraged the climate of getting higher education by a teacher. The positive effect of the climate has been causing better acquisition at the university premises, which were located in urban areas, in the central part of a city's structure. The central location of the halls of knowledge resulted from the needs to adapt institutions to higher education ensuring contact with learning at a given time. Knowledge stimulated later transformations occurring within the city, legalizing the real conditions and trends corresponding to educational per­fection. The assumptions of education were probably adjusted to the external re­ality. As P.C. Calvo-Sotelo and J.R. Jimenez wrote, the foundations of education had been started by the Greek polis, where the embryo of university had been "the city of knowledge," inside which a material structure containing a famous place or building could be found.
Keywords: university, teacher, environment, education atmosphere, creativity

Abstract: The intellectual atmosphere of teachers' education who get it at the centuries-old institution - university has been presented in the chapter. The architecture of university encour­ages getting higher education, but it must undergo transformations depending on the needs and expectations of the external reality. Selected nuances of the mutual relations between uni­versity, its organization, urban shape and the teacher's education taking place there, which together form a unique environment, have been shown in the text. This environment, how­ever, requires specific modernization, which the authoress has attempted to selectively high­light. The whole of the considerations have been summed up.

Słowa kluczowe: uniwersytet, nauczyciel, środowisko, klimat nauki, twórczość

Streszczenie: W rozdziale przedstawiono intelektualny klimat obejmujący edukację nauczy­ciela, który jest kształcony w wielowiekowej wszechnicy wiedzy - uniwersytecie. Architektura uczelni sprzyja zdobywaniu wyższego wykształcenia, ale musi ulec przekształceniom w za­leżności od potrzeb i oczekiwań zewnętrznej rzeczywistości. W tekście pokazano wybrane niuanse wzajemnych relacji pomiędzy uczelnią, jej organizacją kształtem urbanistycznym, a odbywającą się tam edukacją nauczyciela, które razem tworzą niepowtarzalne środowisko. Środowisko to wymaga jednak konkretnych modernizacji, które starano się wybiórczo naświe­tlić. Całość rozważań podsumowano.
Anna Dudak

/dr hab.; Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej in Lublin.
Pedagogical studies seen in high school graduates opinions

Studia pedagogiczne w opinii maturzystów

In Poland almost everyone has become convinced that learning is worthwhile. The research conducted by the Public Opinion Research Center revealed that over 93% of the respondents believe that education is important, and 70% of them consider it crucial. When comparing the findings with the data from 2004, one may notice that the number of people who recognize the importance of edu­cation has been on the increase.



The contemporary diverse and rich educational offer of the universities is a con­sequence of dynamically changing job market as well as the fact that education is perceived in terms of the usability of knowledge and the possibility to develop competences and skills that are needed in professional and social life. The rich educational offer also leads to growing competition between universities as far as attracting new students is concerned.

The decision on the choice of the field of study is undoubtedly not an easy one and the difficulties may be divided into two categories:

  • external factors - opinions and beliefs concerning higher education and fields of study expressed by the people important to the teenager - parents, teach­ers, and authorities. These are usually stereotypical, common beliefs about the merits of a given career;

  • internal factors - abilities, educational and professional predispositions of teen­agers and their ideas concerning the attractiveness of university education.

It should be emphasized that the diverse and constantly increasing number of pro­grams, specialties and specializations (as well as the possibility to register for more
Keywords: pedagogical education, the attractiveness of pedagogical studies, high school graduates

Abstract: The presented research focuses on high school graduates' perception of pedagogi­cal studies in the following dimensions: the shaping of personal competence, the general at­tractiveness of the studies, and the attractiveness of the studies regarding the job market and the higher education market. The research is not only informative but also has practical ap­plications. It allows the organizers of higher education to learn the opinions, convictions and beliefs about studies of the targets of their educational offer, that is of high school students, mainly graduates. This knowledge can be used when developing promotional strategies of a given academic center, a major or a specialization in order to make them more attractive, clear and tailored to the needs of the recipients - late adolescents. What is more, the research can encourage the discussion whether and to what extent the rational and legitimate social expectations are taken into account by the organizers of higher education.

Słowa kluczowe: kształcenie pedagogiczne, atrakcyjność studiów pedagogicznych, maturzyści

Streszczenie: Prezentowane wyniki badań dotyczą oceny studiów pedagogicznych przez maturzystów w następujących wymiarach: kształtowania kompetencji osobistych, atrakcyj­ności procesu kształcenia, atrakcyjności kształcenia na rynku pracy oraz atrakcyjności studiów na rynku edukacji wyższej. Oprócz walorów poznawczych, mają też istotną wartość aplikacyj­ną. Dla organizatorów edukacji wyższej ważna jest wiedza na temat opinii, przekonań i wy­obrażeń o studiach adresatów oferty edukacyjnej, jakimi są uczniowie szkół średnich, w tym szczególnie maturzyści. Wiedza ta może być wykorzystana do opracowywania strategii rekla­mowych promujących poszczególne ośrodki akademickie bądź kierunki i specjalności studiów w sposób czytelny, atrakcyjny, uwzględniających specyfikę odbiorcy (osób w okresie późnej adolescencji). Ponadto przedstawione wyniki mogą stanowić podstawę refleksji organizato­rów studiów nad poziomem uwzględnienia w szeroko rozumianej organizacji studiów zasad­nych i racjonalnych oczekiwań społecznych.
Ihor Dobryansky

/prof. dr hab.; Regionalny Instytut Ekonomii i Zarządzania in Kirovograd/

Vadim Ryzhykov

/dr hab.; Regionalny Instytut Ekonomii i Zarządzania in Kirovograd/
Systems approach as a methodology of training modern specialists of the qualification of "master"

Metodologia kształcenia zawodowego specjalistów na magisterskim poziomie kwalifikacji. Podejście systemowe.

Develop practical component design model modern training specialists with higher education level "master" therefore requires consistency because the system provides opportunities to combine together all the components of training.



The theoretical and practical analysis as a methodology for training modern spe­cialists qualification of "master," the development of a practical component and im­plement a systematic approach to facilitate the training of more effective learning of the content of the training courses with the deepening of research students. Systems approach to the educational process contributes to the development of the modern individual, the formation of highly professional top grade.

Keywords: system, training system, educational system, training, master

Abstract: Developing practical component model design modern training specialists with higher education level "master" accordingly requires systematic, because the system needs possibility to combine all the ingredients together with training. The process of training mod­ern specialists level of "master" is a complex educational system that integrates four basic subsystems - theoretical, psychological and educational, psycho-physiological and practical training.

Słowa kluczowe: system, kształcenie systemowe, system pedagogiczny, kształcenie zawodo­we, magister

Streszczenie: Opracowanie praktycznego modelu kształcenia zawodowego nowoczesnych specjalistów z wykształceniem wyższym na poziomie magisterskim wymaga odpowiedniego podejścia systemowego, ponieważ system daje możliwości scalenia wszystkich składników kształcenia zawodowego. Proces kształcenia zawodowego nowoczesnych specjalistów na poziomie magisterskim jest złożonym systemem pedagogicznym, który integruje cztery pod­stawowe podsystemy - teoretyczny, psychologiczno-pedagogiczny, psychofizyczny oraz szko­lenie praktyczne.

Ewa Kochanowska

/dr; Akademia Techniczno-Humanistyczna in Bielsko-Biała/
Selected problems in verification of the effects of education of candidates for teachers in terms of social competence

Wybrane problemy weryfikacji efektów kształcenia kandydatów na nauczycieli w kategorii kompetencji społecznych

In the contemporary views on the issue of education and schooling, the category of competence has a great importance, mostly due to the "National Qualifications Framework." The diverse and wide range of interpretation of this term, connected, inter alia, with considering competences in the context of multiple concepts of a hu­man, determines the broad range of possibilities of consideration of many issues related to them, inter alia, the problem of the verification of the effects of education of teachers in the scope of selected groups of competences, including social com­petence. A dictionary defines the term of competence as "[...] a scope of entitle­ments to cope with particular issues and to make decisions connected with them, or the scope of ones knowledge, skills and experiences allowing this person to give his/her own opinion on a particular topic."Such an understanding of the issues, according to A. Męczkowska, sets "[...] the perspective of thinking about compe­tence, in which the inner subject's potential appears as its fundamental meaning. The inner potential defines its abilities to take actions and to take a particular po­sition. Competence, in this approach, determines the subjective ability to adjust oneself to the social environment conditions." K. Tucholska also draws attention to the subjective character of competences. She believes that competences are strongly bound with particular features of a personality (needs, attitudes, beliefs or a sys­tem of particular features), which enables effective realization of tasks on a proper.



Keywords: social competences, education, teacher, educational effects, verification

Abstract: The following text aims at giving the pedagogical interpretation of the term of "social competences" form the subjective and emancipative perspective, as well as present­ing selected problems in the verification of the effects of education of candidates for teach­ers. The authoress of the chapter sees causes of these difficulties in differences between various definitions of the term, the boundless character of competences, taking different indicators of achieving them dependently on the adaptive or emancipative-critical approach to the social competences, as well as in the character of interactions between an academic teacher and his/ her students during the verification of the effects of training.
Słowa kluczowe: kompetencje społeczne, kształcenie, nauczyciel, efekty kształcenia, weryfikacja

Streszczenie: Celem niniejszego rozdziału jest pedagogiczna interpretacja pojęcia kompeten­cje społeczne w perspektywie podmiotowej i emancypacyjnej oraz ukazanie związanych z tym wybranych problemów w weryfikacji efektów kształcenia kandydatów na nauczycieli. Głów­nych przyczyn tych trudności autorka upatruje w różnicach w definiowaniu samego pojęcia, nieskończonym charakterze kompetencji, przyjmowaniu różnych wskaźników ich osiągnięcia (w zależności od podejścia adaptacyjnego lub emancypacyjno-krytycznego do kompetencji społecznych) oraz w charakterze interakcji między nauczycielem akademickim a studentem w trakcie weryfikacji efektów kształcenia.
Katarzyna W. Czepiel

/mgr; Uniwersytet Śląski in Katowice/
Innovations in teaching practice program. The accomplishment of Through practice towards career - the program of teaching practice in Humanitas University"project

Innowacje w programie praktyk pedagogicznych. Realizacja projektu „Przez praktykę do zawodu -program praktyk pedagogicznych w Wyższej Szkole Humanitas"
Teaching practice has always been an integral part of educating students of Peda­gogy and English Philology with teaching specialty at Humanitas University. It is an essential element of educating future teachers, and, moreover, "it is an effective way of creating and organizing one's didactic, pedagogic, scholarly and research work. Teaching practice enables gaining various abilities, i.e. designing, planning and conducting didactic and pedagogic work in different educational establish­ments. Teaching practice is to provide students with competences in organizing, creating and improving their didactic work in the course of teaching and fulfill­ing other responsibilities connected to work in school." Teaching practice is an extremely important constituent of preparing students for the role of a teacher, because it gives opportunity to get to know the advantages and disadvantages of working in an educational establishment directly while trying to play the role of a teacher and tutor. Most importantly, however, it enables students to see if the profession they are to follow is what they really want.

Research has shown that the quality of teaching practice conducted in Polish universities is not always satisfying. Teaching practice is treated as an upsetting obligation, which has to be fulfilled in order to get the qualifications to teach. Universities have little control over the way teacher.
Keywords: innovative Teaching Practice Programme, competence development, project accomplishment, tutor, workshop for students and teachers

Abstract: The authoress of the chapter shares her experiences from the accomplishment of "Through practice towards career-the program of teaching practice in Humanitas University" project. She describe the course of the project on every stage and its results. She refers to its aims and summarize activities that influenced its realization. The authoress emphasizes that thanks to the project the innovative Teaching Practice Program came into being. Students participat­ing in the project had an opportunity to conduct more lessons within their practice whereas the workshop prepared them to carry the practice out and to meet challenges of working as a teacher. It increased students' abilities and competences. Also, teachers working as tutors had an opportunity to develop their qualifications.

Słowa kluczowe: innowacyjny program praktyk, wzrost kompetencji, realizacja projektu, opiekun praktyk, warsztaty dla studentów i nauczycieli

Streszczenie: Autorka rozdziału dzieli się doświadczeniami z realizacji projektu „Przez prakty­kę do zawodu - Program Praktyk Pedagogicznych w Wyższej Szkole Humanitas". Opisuje prze­bieg projektu na wszystkich etapach oraz jego efekty. Odnosząc się do celów i założeń projektu, podsumowuje działania, które miały znaczący wpływ na ich realizację. Autorka podkreśla, że dzięki projektowi wypracowany został innowacyjny Program Praktyk Pedagogicznych. Studen­ci uczestniczący w projekcie mieli możliwość udziału w zwiększonej liczbie godzin praktyk oraz w warsztatach przygotowujących do odbycia praktyki zawodu nauczyciela, co zwiększyło ich umiejętności i podniosło kompetencje. Również nauczyciele, którzy pełnili funkcję opiekunów praktyk, mieli możliwość rozwoju poprzez udział w szkoleniach.
Part VI

Instytutional aspect of ediucatyion
Ihor Dobryansky

/prof. dr hab; Instytut Gospodarki Regionalnej i /Ekonomii in Kirowograd/

Iwan Zymomrya

/prof. dr hab.; Uniwersytet Narodowego in Uzhorod/

Lesia Shahala

/dr; Państwowy Uniwersytet Pedagogiczny im. Iwana Franki in Drohobycz/

Rusłana Zowtani

/dr ; Uniwersytet Narodowy in Uzhorod/
Consensus between the interests of a person, society and the state as a pledge of success in modernizing the national system of education

Konsensus między potrzebami osoby, społeczeństwa i państwa jako gwarancja sukcesu modernizacji narodowego systemu edukacji
For over two decades, the national economy and Ukrainian society in general have been in a transitional state, and the restructuring of education is an integral part of it. The management of this process reforms makes the content of the reforms di­rected towards the country's integration into the world system of economic, social and cultural ties. But it would not be proper to connect the necessity for the educa­tional reform only with the transitional period, which Ukraine is still in, and which has already been completed in a number of post-socialist states. We have to take into account that the state of education back in the 60s of the previous century was characterized as critical in democratically developed and economically stable coun­tries. Summarizing this phenomenon, T. Huesen, F. Altbach, O. Albournos, D. John­stone outline the following three features of the general crisis of education:

the crisis of socialization - which is reflected in the change of functions of the family in modern society, the destruction of the nearest social surrounding, turning religiousness into ritual. Under these circumstances, an educational


Keywords: education, crisis, modernization, interest, person, state, society, consensus

Abstract: The chapter deals with the analysis of the problem of coordination between the needs and interests of the state, society and a person in the field of education as one of the philosophical, methodological and socio-pedagogical principles of modernization of educa­tion in today's cultural and educational situation.
Słowa kluczowe: edukacja, kryzys, modernizacja, interes, osoba, państwo, społeczeństwo, konsensus

Streszczenie: Rozdział jest poświęcony analizie problemu konsensusu między potrzebami państwa, społeczeństwa i jednostki w sferze edukacji rozumianej jako jedna z filozoficzno--metodologicznych i socjalno-pedagogicznych zasad modernizacji we współczesnej sytuacji kulturalno-oświatowej.
Marzanna Pogorzelska

/dr; Uniwersytet Opolski/
When the discrimination knocks at the school door. The response of educational institutions to the situation of the local conflict

Kiedy dyskryminacja puka do drzwi szkoły. Reakcja instytucji oświatowych na sytuację konfliktu lokalnego

The problem of discrimination in education might be interpreted and under­stood in various ways. Certainly, this area comprises the questions related to protection of the rights to education of different minority groups with regard to their specific needs. Such an approach involves focusing on legal and institu­tional regulations concerning the minorities' demands, as well as disadvantages and inefficiency of these solutions, often generated by the system of education itself. Moreover, the topic might direct us to the groups who do not fit traditional perception of minorities perceived through the context of nationality, ethnic­ity or religion. These unconventional groups can be, for example, students with various health problems, socially underprivileged people or the representatives of subcultures.



In the text below, I have concentrated on one more way of dealing with the topic, which is school response to the situation of discrimination that takes place in the outer world, beyond the school walls. This aspect seems very important, because schools as the elements of social life, should not function in separation from this world and cannot become distant and closed fortress, avoiding the chal­lenges looming ahead. Schools which do not interact with the wider social envi­ronment are not able to prepare students for the reality they will surely encounter as soon as they leave the "safe" space of formal education. The challenges can be defined in numerous ways, but in my paper I am focusing on the ones connected with contemporary intolerance, exclusion and discrimination.

Keywords: discrimination, project method, Roma community

Abstract: School, as the part of the local environment, should actively cooperate in solving the problems of this environment, also if they comprise questions of discrimination and social ex­clusion. School duties in this area are defined, for example, in the new "Core Curriculum," which obliges these institutions to realize educational projects aimed at solving the problems of the local environment. In the text below, the subject of my analyse student educational projects realized in the middle schools of Wroclaw in 2013/2014 school year, complete with the research of the activities of the Lower Silesian Board of Education in this field. The choice of schools locat­ed in this particular city is determined by the fact that they function in the area where complex questions connected with the Roma community, often resulting in discrimination and social exclusion, have been the source of problems for years. Thus, in my analysis I have searched, in the student projects and activities of educational authorities, fort races of this conflict as well as attempts of the constructive response to this challenge. The results of the analysis, although presenting only an excerpt from the school reality, can be interpreted as an alarming signal, indicating lack of engagement of educational institutions in solving social problems.

Słowa kluczowe: dyskryminacja, metoda projektu, społeczność romska
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