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Iii. Animal Structure and Function


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III. Animal Structure and Function.


Circulation and Gas Exchange

(Functional Anatomy of Cardio-Vasculatory



& Respiratory Systems)

The heart (model): 1 – right ventricle, 2 – left ventricle, 3 – right auricle, 4 – left auricle, 5 – precava, 6 – postcava, 7 – systemic aorta, 8 – pulmonary aorta, 9 – pulmonary veins, 10 – bicuspid valve, 11 – tricuspid valve.


Muscular artery: A – tunica intima, B – internal elastic lamina separating tunica intima and tunica media, C – tunica media, D – collagenous adventitia.



Medium vein (A) and muscular artery (B).


Arteriole in the longitudinal section: A - endothelial cells, B – muscle cells of the tunica media.




Trachea in the longitudinal section: A – the columnar epithelium, B – salivary glands, C – cartilaginous rings, D – fibrous coat.


Lung: A – pleura, B – pulmonary bronchi, C – pulmonary alveoli.




Lung (high power): A – small blood vessel, B - pulmonary alveoli.




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