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Word formation


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WORD FORMATION

In English there are many word beginning (prefixes) and word endings (suffixes) that can be added to a word to change its meaning or its word class.


Verb formation:

- ize [AmE] / -ise [BrE]

American  Americanize

Legal  legalise

Modern  modernize

Popular  popularize



They want to make the factory more modern. They want to modernize the factory.
- (i)fy

Beauty  beautify

Liquid  liquefy

Pure  purify

Simple simplify

These tablets make the water pure. They purify the water.
Adverb formation:

The ending –ly can be added to most common adjectives to form adverbs:


Easy easily

Main  mainly

Quick  quickly

Stupid  stupidly



His behaviour was stupid. He behaved stupidly.
Noun formation:

Ending –er, -ment, -ation can be added to many verbs to form nouns.

- er/ - or

Drive  driver

Open  opener

Teach  teacher

Act  actor
- ment

Amaze  amazement

Develop  development

Pay  payment

Retire  retirement

Children develop very quickly. Their development is very quick.
- ation

Admire  admiration

Associate  association

Examine  examination

Organize  organization

The doctor examined me carefully. He gave me a careful examination.
The endings – ity, -ness can be added to many adjectives to form nouns.

- (i)ty


Cruel  cruelty

Pure  purity

Odd  oddity

Stupid  stupidity



Don’t be so cruel. I hate cruelty.
- ness

Dark  darkness

Deaf  deafness

Happy  happiness

Kind  kindness

It was very dark. The darkness made it impossible to see.
Adjective formation:

The endings –y, -ic, -ical, -less can be added to many nouns to form adjectives.


- y

Bush  bushy

Dirt  dirty

Hair  hairy

Smell  smelly

There was an awful smell in the room. The room was very smelly.
- ic/ -ical

Atom  atomic

Biology  biological

Grammar  grammatical

Poetry  poetic

This book contains exercises on grammar. It contains grammatical exercises.
- ful

Pain  painful

Hope  hopeful

Care  careful



His broken leg caused him a lot of pain. It was very painful.
- less

Pain  painless

Hope  hopeless

Care  careless



The operation didn’t cause her any pain. It was painless.
The ending –able added to many verbs forms adjectives

- able


Wash  washable

Love  lovable

Debate  debatable

Break  breakable



You can wash this coat. It’s washable.
Opposites:

The following prefixes can be used in front of many words to produce an opposite meaning. Note, however, that the words formed in this way are not always EXACT opposites and may have a slightly different meaning.


Un-

Happy  unhappy

Fortunate  unfortunate

Wind  unwind

Block  unblock

I’m not very happy. In fact, I’m unhappy.
In-

Efficient  inefficient

Different  indifferent *(change in the meaning!)
Im-

Patient  impatient

Possible  impossible
Il-

Literate  illiterate

Legal  illegal
Ir-

Responsible  irresponsible

Regular  irregular
Dis-

Agree  disagree

Approve  disapprove

Honest  dishonest


De-

Centralize decentralize

Increase decrease
Non-

Sense  nonsense

Conformist  nonconformist


SOME OF THE PREFIXES & SUFFIXES CHARACTERISTIC FOR PARTICULAR PARTS OF SPEECH
1. NOUN

-nomy

-ist

-ics

-ogy

-ity

-ance

-tion

-ism

-ment

-ness

-er

-or

-tude

-ure

-ant

-ian












2. ADJECTIVE



-al

-ic

-ant

-ile

-ory

-ate

-ful

-ous

-able

-less

-ible

-ious

-ive






3. VERB


-ate

-ish

-en

-ize

ify


ZESTAWIENIE PRZEDROSTÓW I PRZYROSTKÓW NAJCZĘŚCIEJ WYSTĘPUJĄCYCH W JĘZ. ANGIELSKIM


PRZEDROSTKI GRECKIE I ŁACIŃSKIE

PRZEDROSTEK

ZNACZENIE

PRZYKŁAD

ante

przed

Ante meridiem

anti

przeciw

antibiotic

circum

dookoła, wokół

circumstances

Con/com/co

razem

Common

Contra/counter

przeciw

Counterargument

Inter/medi

między

International

Im/in

w

Inside

intra

wewnątrz

Intravenous

post

po

Postpone

pre

przed

Preface

pro

Dla, naprzód

Prominent

re

ponownie

Rewrite

sub

pod

Submarine

Super/sur

Zwierzchni, ponad

Superman

Syn/sym/homo

Taki sam

symetry

tele

Łączący na odległość

Telephone

trans

Przez, poprzez

Transparent

ultra

Skrajnie, w najwyższym stopniu

Ultramodern




PRZEDROSTKI NEGATYWNE

de

Działanie odwrotne

Dehydrate

mal

Źle, niedostatecznie

Malnutrition

mis

Źle, błędnie

Misinform

Im/In/il/non

Źle, bez

Illegal

Un/dis

Odwrócenie działania

Discharge




PRZEDROSTKI OKREŚLAJĄCE ILOŚĆ LUB STOPIEŃ

ambi

oba

Ambidextrous

hyper

nadmiernie

Hyperinflation

hypo

Pod, poniżej

Hypotension

Hemi/semi

pół

Semicircle

Mono/uni

Jeden, jedyny

Monopoly

Proto/prim

pierwszy

Prototype

Di/bi

Drugi, dwa

Bicycle

Tri/ter

Trzy, trzeci

Trigenometry

Tetra/quad

cztery

Quadrilatelar

Penta/quint

pięć

Pentagon

Hexa/sexa

sześć

Hexametr

Hepta/septa

siedem

Heptametr

oct

osiem

Octopus

non

dziewięć

Nonagon

Dec/deci/deca

dziesięć

Decimal

Poly/multi

Wiele, dużo

Polegamy, multinational




PRZEDROSTKI BĘDĄCE JEDNOCZEŚNIE SAMODZIELNYMI WYRAZAMI

extra

Ponad, ekstra

Extraordinary

out

Poza, przekraczając

Ougrow

over

Zbyt dużo, ponad

Overweight

under

pod

underground



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